Clinical Pathology

The UAC Pathology Services Laboratory uses the HEMAVET Multispecies Hematology Analyzer. It is a quantitative, automated multispecies hematology analyzer for in vitro diagnostic use. It can determine a variety of hematologic parameters on multiple species (dog, pig, mouse, rat, primate, sheep and more) including:

Complete blood count

WBC White blood cell or leukocyte count
RBC Red blood cell or erythrocyte count
Hb Hemoglobin concentration
HCT Hematocrit or relative volume of erythrocytes
PLT Platelet or thrombocyte count
MPV Mean platelet volume
MCV Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) volume
MCH Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) hemoglobin
MCHC Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) hemoglobin concentration

Automated differential

NE# Neutrophil count
NE% Neutrophil percent
LY# Lymphocyte count
LY% Lymphocyte percent
MO# Monocyte count
MO% Monocyte percent
EO# Eosinophil count
EO% Eosinophil percent
BA# Basophil count
BA% Basophil percent

Other species (with anuclear RBC's) not listed above may be tested but will not include an automated differential (a manual differential may be done).

  • All blood tubes must be labeled with a unique animal identification and accompanied by a completed Pathology Services submission form. Recommended blood collection procedures for rodent hematology are found on the Sample Submission page.
  • The quality of results is directly correlated to the quality of the samples submitted. Please follow the recommendations on sample requirements and storage to ensure high quality results.
  • Sample requirements: A minimum of 80 uL unclotted EDTA whole blood is needed (100-200 uL is recommended). Clotted or heparinized blood is NOT acceptable and will not be evaluated.
  • Sample storage:  Submit samples to the lab the same day they are obtained, if possible. Samples may be refrigerated for up to 24 hours. DO NOT place samples on ice or in the freezer as this results in blood cell lysis.

Please schedule sample submission at least 2 days in advance. Call (520) 626-7661 or email us at UAC-Path@email.arizona.edu for scheduling or more information. View the Pathology Services Price List for cost information.

Chemistry profiles are available upon request. Extra processing time is required for these tests as supplies must be ordered before the tests can be run. Please contact the Pathology Lab at least one week before you submit your request.

Profiles (Requires serum or heparinized plasma)

Recommended Volume Minimum Volume Required Stability/Storage 2-8°C Stability/Storage -20°C
Comprehensive Profile
Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Total Protein, Albumin, Calcium, GGT, Cholesterol, BUN, Phosphorus, Creatinine, Total Bilirubin
300 uL 240 uL 3 days 2 months
Clinical Profile
Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Total Protein, BUN, Creatinine
220 uL 190 uL 3 days 2 months
Electrolytes
Na, K, Cl
200 uL 150 uL 2 months 2 months
Individual Chemistries        
Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Amylase, CK, Total Protein, Albumin, Calcium, Cholesterol, BUN, Phosphorus, Creatinine, Total Bilirubin, GGT, Lipase, Magnesium, Triglycerides, Uric Acid Generally, 3 analytes require at least 100 uL Generally, 3 analytes require at least 100 uL 3 days 2 months
  • All sample tubes must be labeled with a unique animal identification and accompanied by a completed Pathology Services submission form. Recommended blood collection procedures for rodent hematology are found on the Sample Submission page.
  • The quality of results is directly correlated to the quality of the samples submitted. Please follow the recommendations on sample requirements and storage to ensure high quality results.
  • EDTA plasma is unacceptable and will not be tested.
  • Avoid hemolysis of serum/plasma. Hemolysis will interfere with certain tests.
  • Serum/plasma needs to be separated from the red cells within 4 hours of withdrawal from animal.
  • Diluted sera are strongly discouraged as the diluent may interfere with analysis or analytes may be diluted to undetectable levels.
  • Prioritize order of testing for low volume samples.

Please give Pathology Services at least one week notice prior to sample submission so testing can be scheduled and reagents can be ordered, if needed. Call (520) 626-7661 or email us at UAC-Path@email.arizona.edu for scheduling or more information. View the Pathology Services Price List for cost information.

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Normal Clinical Chemistry Values

 

Unit

Mouse

Rat

Hamster

G. Pig

Rabbit 1

Cat 1

Dog 1

Rhesus2 M, >5 y

Bonnet3 F, Adult

Bonnet3 F, Aged

Sheep4

Swine4

Bovine5

ALP

U/L 35-96 174-589 15-160 64-76 3.0-3.4 0-90 0-140 119-287 97-309 118-233

70-390

120-400 29-99

ALT

U/L 17-77 35-80 25-70 33-49 10-100 0-100 0-120 25-41 32-48 27-54 22-38 31-58 17-37

AST

U/L 54-298   28-140   10-100 0-60 0-60 28-48 13-31 25-52 60-280 32-84 48-100

GGT

U/L             0-14 39-71     20-52 10-60 20-48

LDH

U/L                        

692-

14454

Total
Protein (serum)

g/dl 3.5-7.2 5.6-7.6 4.5-7.5 4.6-6.2 5.0-8.5 5.7-7.8 5.0-7.2 7.3-8.3 5.4-8.4 6.2-7.6 6.0-7.9 3.5-6.0 5.9-7.7

Albumin

g/dl 2.5-3 3.8-4.8 2.3-4.3 2.1-3.9 3.0-3-4 2.3-3.5 2.5-4.0 4.1-4.9 3.4-4.6 2.7-3.7 2.4-3.0 1.9-2.4 2.7-4.3

Globulin

g/dl 1.0-4.2 1.8-2.8           2.8-3.8 2.0-3.8 3.4-3.8 3.6-4.9 1.6-3.6  

Calcium

mg/dl 7.1-10.1 8-13 9.5-12 5.3-12

13.0-

15.0

8.8-11.9

9.0-12.2

9.5-11.3 6.4-10 8.1-9.5

11.5-

13.0

7.1-

11.6

7.9-10.0

Phosphorous

mg/dl 5.7-9.2 5.3-8.3 3.4-8.2 3-7.6 5.6-9.2 2.6-6.0 1.9-5.0 2.7-4.5 1.4-3.8 1.4-3.8 5.0-7.3 5.3-9.6 4.6-9.0

Cholesterol

mg/dl   40-130 50-120 20-43 22-70 70-200 120-310 133-177 69-100 137-170 43-103 28-48 87-254

Glucose

mg/dl 62-175 50-160 60-150 60-125 85-145 70-130 75-125 51-83 43-84 43-56 50-80 85-150 37-71

BUN

mg/dl 8-33 10-21

15-28

9-31.5 14-23 15-32 9-29 17-23 28-40 14-22 8-20 10-30 10-26

Creatinine

mg/dl 0.2-0.9 0.5-1 0.3-1 0.6-2.2 0.8-2.9 0.8-1.8 0.4-1.4 1.0-1.2 0.5-0.9 0.5-0.9 1.2-1.9 1.0-2.7 0.7-1.1

T. Bilirubin

mg/dl 0-0.9 0.2-0.5 0.2-0.8 0.3-0.9 0.2-0.7 0.0-0.5 0.0-0.5 0-0.4 0.1-0.3 0.1-0.3 0.1-0.5 0-1.0 0.1-0.3

Sodium

mEq/l 140-160 140-150 128-150 146-152 130-150 147-156 141-152 145-151 122-157

132-139

145-152 140-150 136-144

Potassium

mEq/l

5-7.5

4.3-5.6 3.9-5.8 6.8-8.9 3.6-7.5 3.4-5.3 3.8-5.3 3.6-4.2 3.5-4.9 3.3-4.0 3.9-5.4 4.7-7.1 4.0-5.3

Chloride

mEq/l

88-110

95-115 95-110 98-115 95-120 107-125 102-120

111-115

    95-103 94-103 94-104

These values were subjectively averaged from a variety of sources.  There is a great range of values reported that vary according to age, sex, breed or strain, sampling technique, and testing methodology.  As such, the range limits are not firm boundaries and should be used as guidelines.

  1. Heska Dri-Chem Veterinary Analyzer, 2012
  2. Buchl et al. 1997. Lab Animal Science 47:528-533
  3. Ramachandra et al. 1998. Primates 39:127-134.  Adult: 6-13 yrs; Aged: 18-20 yrs.
  4. Radostits et. al. 2007.  Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th edition.
  5. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Interpetation & Diagnosis, Second Ed., Meyer & Harvey

Hematology Values

  Mouse Rat Gerbil Hamster G Pig Rabbit Cat Dog Rhesus Sheep Swine Calf
WBC (x1000) 1.8-10.7 2.9-20.9 6.51-21.6 5.02-10.6 6.0-14.0 5.2-12.5 5.5-19.5 6.0-17.0 5.0-21.1 4.0-12.0 11.0-22.0 4.0-12.0
Differential (%)
Neutrophil 6.6-38.9 5.3-38.1 2.00-23.0 17.1-35.2 13.0-40.0 17.2-59.3 35.0-78.0 60.0-80.0 13.0-60.0 10.0-50.0 28.0-51.0 15.0-47.0
Lymphocyte 55.8-91.6 56.7-93.1 73.0-97.0 50.9-92.3 53.0-83.0 31.2-79.6 20.0-55.0 12.0-30.0 35.0-82.5 30.0-75.0 39.0-62.0 45.0-75.0
Monocyte 0.0-7.5 0.0-7.7 0.00-3.00 0.40-4.40 0.0-6.0 0.0-13.1 0.0-14.0 3.0-14.0 0.0-5.0 0.0-6.0 2.0-10.0 0.0-11.0
Eosinophil 0.0-3.9 0.0-3.4 0.00-4.00 0.22-1.54 0.0-1.0 0.0-3.4 2.0-12.0 2.0-10.0 0.0-10.4 0.0-10.0 0.5-11.0 0.0-20.0
Basophil 0.0-2.0 0.0-0.4 0.00-1.00 0.00-5.00 0.0-1.0 0.0-5.6 0.0-2.5 0.0-2.5 0.0-1.0 0.0-3.0 0.0-2.0 0.0-3.50

RBC (x106)

6.36-9.42 4.60-9.19 7.87-9.97 3.96-10.3 4.40-6.00 5.10-7.90 5.00-11.00 5.50-8.50 4.60-7.30 9.00-15.00 5.00-8.00 5.0-10.00
Hgb (g/dl) 11.0-15.1 10.0-16.7 15.2-16.8 13.1-19.2 11.0-15.0 9.8-17.4 8.0-15.0 12.0-18.0 8.7-15.2 9.0-15.0 10.0-16.0 8.0-15.0
PCV (%) 35.1-45.4 34.0-53.0 46.0-52.0 32.9-58.8 37.0-48.0 31.0-50.0 24.0-45.0 37.0-55.0 30.3-47.3 27.0-45.0 32.0-50.0 24.0-46.0
MCV (fl) 45.4-60.3 50.0-77.8 46.6-60.0 64.0-77.6 77.5-88.5 57.8-66.5 39.0-52.0 60.0-74.0 69.5-83.4 28.0-40.0 50.0-68.0 40.0-60.0
MCH (pg) 14.1-19.3 16.0-23.1 16.1-19.4 19.9-25.8 22.0-28.0 17.1-23.5 12.5-17.5 19.5-24.5 19.6-27.0 8.0-12.0 17.0-21.0 11.1-17.0
MCHC (g/dl) 30.2-34.2 28.2-34.1 30.6-33.3 27.8-37.4 28.9-32.0 28.7-37.0 30.0-37.0 31.0-36.0 27.1-33.0 31.0-34.0 30.0-34.0 28.2-36.0
Platelet (x1000) 592-2972 685-1436 400-600 300-573 380-650 270-656 150-500 200-500 259-734 250-750 325-715 100-800
MPV (fl) 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-15.0 5.0-15.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0 5.0-20.0