University Animal Care

Compassion for Animals, Hope for People

Clinical Pathology

  • The UAC Pathology Services Laboratory uses the HEMAVET Multispecies Hematology Analyzer. It is a quantitative, automated multispecies hematology analyzer for in vitro diagnostic use. It can determine a variety of hematologic parameters on multiple species (dog, pig, mouse, rat, primate, sheep and more) including:

    Complete blood count:
    WBC White blood cell or leukocyte count
    RBC Red blood cell or erythrocyte count
    Hb Hemoglobin concentration
    HCT Hematocrit or relative volume of erythrocytes
    PLT Platelet or thrombocyte count
    MPV Mean platelet volume
    MCV Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) volume
    MCH Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) hemoglobin
    MCHC Mean corpuscular (erythrocyte) hemoglobin concentration
    Automated differential:
    NE# Neutrophil count
    NE% Neutrophil percent
    LY# Lymphocyte count
    LY% Lymphocyte percent
    MO# Monocyte count
    MO% Monocyte percent
    EO# Eosinophil count
    EO% Eosinophil percent
    BA# Basophil count
    BA% Basophil percent

    Other species (with anuclear RBC's) not listed above may be tested but will not include an automated differential (a manual differential may be done).

    • • All blood tubes must be labeled with a unique animal identification and accompanied by a completed Pathology Services submission form. Recommended blood collection procedures for rodent hematology are found on the Sample Submission page.
    • • The quality of results is directly correlated to the quality of the samples submitted. Please follow the recommendations on sample requirements and storage to ensure high quality results.
    • • Sample requirements: A minimum of 80 uL unclotted EDTA whole blood is needed (100-200 uL is recommended). Clotted or heparinized blood is NOT acceptable and will not be evaluated.
    • • Sample storage:  Submit samples to the lab the same day they are obtained, if possible. Samples may be refrigerated for up to 24 hours. DO NOT place samples on ice or in the freezer as this results in blood cell lysis.

    Please schedule sample submission at least 2 days in advance. Call (520) 626-7661 or email us at UAC-Path@email.arizona.edu for scheduling or more information. View the Pathology Services Price List for cost information.

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  • Profiles (Requires serum or heparinized plasma) Recommended Volume Minimum Volume Required Stability/Storage 2-8°C Stability/Storage -20°C
    Comprehensive Profile
    Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Total Protein, Albumin, Calcium, GGT, Cholesterol, BUN, Phosphorus, Creatinine, Total Bilirubin
    300 uL 240 uL 3 days 2 months
    Clinical Profile
    Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Total Protein, BUN, Creatinine
    220 uL 190 uL 3 days 2 months
    Electrolytes
    Na, K, Cl
    200 uL 150 uL 2 months 2 months
    Individual Chemistries
    Alkaline Phosphatase, Glucose, ALT, Amylase, CK, Total Protein, Albumin, Calcium, Cholesterol, BUN, Phosphorus, Creatinine, Total Bilirubin, GGT, Lipase, Magnesium, Triglycerides, Uric Acid Generally, 3 analytes require at least 100 uL Generally, 3 analytes require at least 100 uL 3 days 2 months
    • • All sample tubes must be labeled with a unique animal identification and accompanied by a completed Pathology Services submission form. Recommended blood collection procedures for rodent hematology are found on the Sample Submission page.
    • • The quality of results is directly correlated to the quality of the samples submitted. Please follow the recommendations on sample requirements and storage to ensure high quality results.
    • • EDTA plasma is unacceptable and will not be tested.
    • • Avoid hemolysis of serum/plasma. Hemolysis will interfere with certain tests.
    • • Serum/plasma needs to be separated from the red cells within 4 hours of withdrawal from animal.
    • • Diluted sera are strongly discouraged as the diluent may interfere with analysis or analytes may be diluted to undetectable levels.
    • • Prioritize order of testing for low volume samples.

    Please give Pathology Services at least one week notice prior to sample submission so testing can be scheduled and reagents can be ordered, if needed. Call (520) 626-7661 or email us at UAC-Path@email.arizona.edu for scheduling or more information. View the Pathology Services Price List for cost information.

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    NORMAL CLINICAL CHEMISTRY VALUES

     

    Unit

    Mouse

    Rat

    Hamster

    G. Pig

    Rabbit 1

    Cat 1

    Dog 1

    Rhesus2 M, >5 y

    Bonnet3 F, Adult

    Bonnet3 F, Aged

    Sheep 4

    Swine 4

    Bovine 5

    ALP

    U/L

    35-96

    174-589

    15-160

    64-76

    3.0-3.4

    0-90

    0-140

    119-287

    97-309

    118-233

    70-390

    120-400

    29-99

    ALT

    U/L

    17-77

    35-80

    25-70

    33-49

    10-100

    0-100

    0-120

    25-41

    32-48

    27-54

    22-38

    31-58

    17-37

    AST

    U/L

    54-298

     

    28-140

     

    10-100

    0-60

    0-60

    28-48

    13-31

    25-52

    60-280

    32-84

    48-100

    GGT

    U/L

     

     

     

     

     

     

    0-14

    39-71

     

     

    20-52

    10-60

    20-48

    LDH

    U/L

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    692-14454

    Total Protein (serum)

    g/dl

    3.5-7.2

    5.6-7.6

    4.5-7.5

    4.6-6.2

    5.0-8.5

    5.7-7.8

    5.0-7.2

    7.3-8.3

    5.4-8.4

    6.2-7.6

    6.0-7.9

    3.5-6.0

    5.9-7.7

    Albumin

    g/dl

    2.5-3

    3.8-4.8

    2.3-4.3

    2.1-3.9

    3.0-3-4

    2.3-3.5

    2.5-4.0

    4.1-4.9

    3.4-4.6

    2.7-3.7

    2.4-3.0

    1.9-2.4

    2.7-4.3

    Globulin

    g/dl

    1.0-4.2

    1.8-2.8

     

     

     

     

     

    2.8-3.8

    2.0-3.8

    3.4-3.8

    3.6-4.9

    1.6-3.6

     

    Calcium

    mg/dl

    7.1-10.1

    8-13

    9.5-12

    5.3-12

    13.0-15.0

    8.8-11.9

    9.0-12.2

    9.5-11.3

    6.4-10

    8.1-9.5

    11.5-13.0

    7.1-11.6

    7.9-10.0

    Phosphorous

    mg/dl

    5.7-9.2

    5.3-8.3

    3.4-8.2

    3-7.6

    5.6-9.2

    2.6-6.0

    1.9-5.0

    2.7-4.5

    1.4-3.8

    1.4-3.8

    5.0-7.3

    5.3-9.6

    4.6-9.0

    Cholesterol

    mg/dl

     

    40-130

    50-120

    20-43

    22-70

    70-200

    120-310

    133-177

    69-100

    137-170

    43-103

    28-48

    87-254

    Glucose

    mg/dl

    62-175

    50-160

    60-150

    60-125

    85-145

    70-130

    75-125

    51-83

    43-84

    43-56

    50-80

    85-150

    37-71

    BUN

    mg/dl

    8-33

    10-21

    15-28

    9-31.5

    14-23

    15-32

    9-29

    17-23

    28-40

    14-22

    8-20

    10-30

    10-26

    Creatinine

    mg/dl

    0.2-0.9

    0.5-1

    0.3-1

    0.6-2.2

    0.8-2.9

    0.8-1.8

    0.4-1.4

    1.0-1.2

    0.5-0.9

    0.5-0.9

    1.2-1.9

    1.0-2.7

    0.7-1.1

    T. Bilirubin

    mg/dl

    0-0.9

    0.2-0.5

    0.2-0.8

    0.3-0.9

    0.2-0.7

    0.0-0.5

    0.0-0.5

    0-0.4

    0.1-0.3

    0.1-0.3

    0.1-0.5

    0-1.0

    0.1-0.3

    Sodium

    mEq/l

    140-160

    140-150

    128-150

    146-152

    130-150

    147-156

    141-152

    145-151

    122-157

    132-139

    145-152

    140-150

    136-144

    Potassium

    mEq/l

    5-7.5

    4.3-5.6

    3.9-5.8

    6.8-8.9

    3.6-7.5

    3.4-5.3

    3.8-5.3

    3.6-4.2

    3.5-4.9

    3.3-4.0

    3.9-5.4

    4.7-7.1

    4.0-5.3

    Chloride

    mEq/l

    88-110

    95-115

    95-110

    98-115

    95-120

    107-125

    102-120

    111-115

     

     

    95-103

    94-103

    94-104

    These values were subjectively averaged from a variety of sources.  There is a great range of values reported that vary according to age, sex, breed or strain, sampling technique, and testing methodology.  As such, the range limits are not firm boundaries and should be used as guidelines.
    1 Heska Dri-Chem Veterinary Analyzer, 2012
    2 Buchl et al. 1997. Lab Animal Science 47:528-533
    3 Ramachandra et al. 1998. Primates 39:127-134.  Adult: 6-13 yrs; Aged: 18-20 yrs.
    4 Radostits et. al. 2007.  Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th edition.
    5 Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Interpetation & Diagnosis, Second Ed., Meyer & Harvey

     

    HEMATOLOGY VALUES

    Mouse

    Rat

    Gerbil

    Hamster

    G Pig

    Rabbit

    Cat

    Dog

    Rhesus

    Sheep

    Swine

    Calf

    WBC (x1000)

    1.8-10.7

    2.9-20.9

    6.51-21.6

    5.02-10.6

    6.0-14.0

    5.2-12.5

    5.5-19.5

    6.0-17.0

    5.0-21.1

    4.0-12.0

    11.0-22.0

    4.0-12.0

    Differential (%)

         Neutrophil

    6.6-38.9

    5.3-38.1

    2.00-23.0

    17.1-35.2

    13.0-40.0

    17.2-59.3

    35.0-78.0

    60.0-80.0

    13.0-60.0

    10.0-50.0

    28.0-51.0

    15.0-47.0

         Lymphocyte

    55.8-91.6

    56.7-93.1

    73.0-97.0

    50.9-92.3

    53.0-83.0

    31.2-79.6

    20.0-55.0

    12.0-30.0

    35.0-82.5

    30.0-75.0

    39.0-62.0

    45.0-75.0

         Monocyte

    0.0-7.5

    0.0-7.7

    0.00-3.00

    0.40-4.40

    0.0-6.0

    0.0-13.1

    0.0-14.0

    3.0-14.0

    0.0-5.0

    0.0-6.0

    2.0-10.0

    0.0-11.0

         Eosinophil

    0.0-3.9

    0.0-3.4

    0.00-4.00

    0.22-1.54

    0.0-1.0

    0.0-3.4

    2.0-12.0

    2.0-10.0

    0.0-10.4

    0.0-10.0

    0.5-11.0

    0.0-20.0

         Basophil

    0.0-2.0

    0.0-0.4

    0.00-1.00

    0.00-5.00

    0.0-1.0

    0.0-5.6

    0.0-2.5

    0.0-2.5

    0.0-1.0

    0.0-3.0

    0.0-2.0

    0.0-3.50

    RBC (x106)

    6.36-9.42

    4.60-9.19

    7.87-9.97

    3.96-10.3

    4.40-6.00

    5.10-7.90

    5.00-11.00

    5.50-8.50

    4.60-7.30

    9.00-15.00

    5.00-8.00

    5.0-10.00

    Hgb (g/dl)

    11.0-15.1

    10.0-16.7

    15.2-16.8

    13.1-19.2

    11.0-15.0

    9.8-17.4

    8.0-15.0

    12.0-18.0

    8.7-15.2

    9.0-15.0

    10.0-16.0

    8.0-15.0

    PCV (%)

    35.1-45.4

    34.0-53.0

    46.0-52.0

    32.9-58.8

    37.0-48.0

    31.0-50.0

    24.0-45.0

    37.0-55.0

    30.3-47.3

    27.0-45.0

    32.0-50.0

    24.0-46.0

    MCV (fl)

    45.4-60.3

    50.0-77.8

    46.6-60.0

    64.0-77.6

    77.5-88.5

    57.8-66.5

    39.0-52.0

    60.0-74.0

    69.5-83.4

    28.0-40.0

    50.0-68.0

    40.0-60.0

    MCH (pg)

    14.1-19.3

    16.0-23.1

    16.1-19.4

    19.9-25.8

    22.0-28.0

    17.1-23.5

    12.5-17.5

    19.5-24.5

    19.6-27.0

    8.0-12.0

    17.0-21.0

    11.1-17.0

    MCHC (g/dl)

    30.2-34.2

    28.2-34.1

    30.6-33.3

    27.8-37.4

    28.9-32.0

    28.7-37.0

    30.0-37.0

    31.0-36.0

    27.1-33.0

    31.0-34.0

    30.0-34.0

    28.2-36.0

    Platelet (x1000)

    592-2972

    685-1436

    400-600

    300-573

    380-650

    270-656

    150-500

    200-500

    259-734

    250-750

    325-715

    100-800

    MPV (fl)

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-15.0

    5.0-15.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

    5.0-20.0

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